Stomach is the J shaped muscular organ present in the GI Tract which is connected superiorly with Oesophagus and inferiorly with small intestine.

Parts of Stomach

1. Fundus – It is the upper part of the Stomach and this part is connected with the Oesophagus by Cardiac sphincters .

2. Body – It is a middle portion of the Stomach .

3. Antrum – The lowermost part of the Stomach.

4. Pylorus – Pylorus is a ending part of the Stomach .

Layer of stomach-

  • MucosaIt is innermost layer of the Stomach . It contains glands that secrets the digestive juice that called Hydrochloric acid and pepsin .
  • Submucosa It is second most layer of the Stomach from inside. It contains the blood vessels , nerves and lymphatic vessels.
  • Muscularis – middle muscular layer of the Stomach through that peristalsis movement perform.
  • Serosa – Outermost layer of the Stomach.

Hormone secreted by Stomach

Phases of digestion

1. Cephalic phase – In that phase food sight , smell or thought stimulate the neural impulse that travel to hypothalamus and amygdala .

2. Gastric phase – In that phase gastric secretion stimulate during taking food .

3. Intestinal phase – In that phase nerves stimulate when food enter into the intestine .

Stomach Cell and their secretion –

Goblet cell – It secret the mucus that protect the stomach lining.

Parietal cell – It secret Hydrochloric acid ( pH is 1.5 to 2) . It requires for the activation of pepsinogen.

Chief Cell – It is located deep in stomach mucous lining and secret proenzyme pepsinogen that with acidic environment convert into pepsin .

D cell – D cell present in open type in antrum and closed type in oxyntic mucosa and it’s main function is to secret somatostatin . Somatostatin main function is to reduce the pancreas hormone secretion include glucagon and insulin .

G cell – It is a G- cell or gastrin cell that found in stomach and duodenum and it’s main function is to secret Gastrin cell . Gastrin cell stimulate secretion of Gastrin acid (HCl) by the parietal cell.

Function of Stomach

1. Storage – Our stomach store food for 2 to 4 hour after that it release it into our small intestine . But storage is also affect by several factors as like –

  • Sex – Female take more time for storage of food into their stomach in comparison to male .
  • Hormone
  • Type of nutrition mean fat or protein .
  • Volume of food taken

2. Mechanical digestion – Due to peristalsis movement there is food breaking start .

3. Chemical Digestion – In that due to enzymes there is breaking down of food larger compound into smaller ones .


Oesophagus is a Food pipe or gullet .

Oesophagus is a hollow muscular organ which is located in our body from C6 to T11 . It is totally 25 cm long and situation between the Trachea and vertebral column .

Oesophagus enter into the diaphragmatic hitus at the 10 thoracic column .

Diaphragm has three opening for pass out the organ –

  • Aortic hiatus
  • Diaphragmatic hiatus
  • Caval hiatus

Layer of Oesophagus –

It consist of four layer –

From Google
  • Adventitia – outer most layer of the oesophagus .
  • Muscularis – muscular layer of the oesophagus .
  • Submucosa – second most layer of the oesophagus.
  • Mucosa – innermost layer of the oesophagus .


There are two sphincters are present –

From Google
  • Upper Oesophagus Sphincters – It’s is present at the top of Oesophagus for the prevention of air entering into the oesophagus.
  • Lower Oesophagus Sphincters – It’s is present at the ending point of Oesophagus and starting point of stomach mean at a place where oesophagus connect with stomach for prevention of back flow of food.

Oesophagus enter into the stomach at an acute angle.

Function of Oesophagus –

It’s main function is the pass the food material , saliva and liquid to the stomach from the mouth.

These materials pass from mouth to stomach through peristalsis movement .

Peristalsis movement – It’s a wave like movement or flow in the GI Tract muscle for the passing of food from one place to other and also breakdown it with passing .


Peristalsis movement – It is a rhythmic movement that allow to pass food material , saliva and other liquid.

Digestive System

Digestive system is also known as Gastrointestinal System or GI Tract .

Digestive System is defined as a system in which food digestion and absorption take place .

Digestion is defined as the process in which food is converted into small form for the absorption of essential nutrient into the body from the complex form .

Digestion process take place in two processes –

  • Mechanical process – In that digestion process take place with in the mouth – chewing.
  • Chemical process – In that digestion process take place by the help of chemical ( acid secreted by GI Tract ) .

Digestive System Organ

It is divided into two forms –

  • Primary Organ – It’s contain the actual organ that play direct role on digestion .
  • Accessory Organ – It’s contain the organ that help in the digestion not directly involve.

Primary Organ

  • Mouth
  • Pharynx
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small Intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Rectum
  • Anus

Accessory Organ

  • Salivary gland
  • Liver
  • Pancreas

Primary Organ

1. Mouth / Oral cavity

Mouth or oral cavity is a place where ingestion of food take place and in that place a physical or mechanical digestion take place . Its also a entrance gate for digestive system .It’s contain a set of 32 teeth which help in chewing.

Temporary teeth  – It is a set of 20 teeth . It’s another name is milk teeth and it is found in child  which dental formula is

  • Incisor- 2
  • Canines – 1
  • Premolars – 0
  • Molar – 2

Permanent teeth – It is a set of 32 teeth which is found in adult . Dental formula is

  • Incisor – 2
  • Canines – 1
  • Premolars – 2
  • Molar – 3

Function of teeth –

  • It help in cutting of food .
  • It help in Chewing of food .
  • It help in “pronounce words”.
  • It help us in “shaping the face”.

Function of Mouth

  • It start physical digestion process by cutting and chewing of food through teeth .
  • Its a place where saliva mix with the food .
  • Its a place for ingestion of food .

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is also known as Phylloquinone and it is also a fat soluble vitamin .

Benefits of Vitamin K

  • It is useful for blood clotting because it’s make various protein that are needed for blood clotting and prothrombin is formed by Vitamin K . it is also given to child for prevention from VKDB ( Vitamin K deficiency bleeding ) .
  • Its also useful for wound to heal .
  • Also small benefits for keep bones healthy.

Source of Vitamin K

Food Sources

  • Green leafy vegetable such as : Kale ,Spinach .
  • Turnip
  • Broccoli
  • Cauliflower
  • Cabbage
  • Cereals
  • Fish
  • Egg’s
  • Meat

Fruits source

  • Kiwi
  • Avocados
  • Blackberries
  • Blueberries
  • Pomegranate
  • Figs
  • Tomatoes

Deficiency of Vitamin K cause

Firstly person may face bleeding disorder either external ( bleeding occur from outside the body ) and internal ( inside of the body ) .

Baby may face VKDB ( Vitamin K deficiency bleeding )

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat soluble Vitamin and also it is acts as Anti-oxidant. Vitamin E is very helpful for our skin and also treat different disease , so let’s know today some important points about Vitamin E.

Vitamin E function

  • Vitamin E prevents us from UV-rays side-effects and also from Anti-ageing .
  • Its act as Anti-oxidant so it is protect our skin damage caused by free radical formation ( free radical are compound found in our body when our body convert food into Energy ) .
  • It act’s as Anti-oxidant that stop the production of ROS ( Reactive Oxygen species – It is highly reactive chemical molecules formed due to the electron acceptability of Oxygen ).
  • Vitamin E widen the blood vessels so it’s prevents the blood clotting.

Treat some disease condition

  • Atopic dermatitis ( an itchy Inflammation of the skin ).
  • Fatty liver disease (accumulation of liver )
  • Slowing the progression of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Note : Vitamin E when taken with Vitamin C then it’s absorption increase .

Source of Vitamin E

Wheat germ oil is a richest source of Vitamin E . Wheat germ oil is extracted from the kernel of wheat germ .

  • Vegetable oil : Wheat germ , sunflower , safflower , Soyabean oil .
  • Nuts : Almond , Peanuts , hazelnut.
  • Seed : Sunflower seeds .
  • Green leafy vegetable : Spinach , Broccoli.
  • Fortified breakfast Cereals , fruit juice .

Note : Vitamin E can be taken in excessive form it can’t harm but the condition is it is in natural form if it is in synthetic form then can cause disease.

Vitamin E deficiency cause

  • Chronic Pancreatitis – prolonged Inflammation of the pancreas gland .
  • Cholestasis – It is a condition in which the flow of bile from the liver stop or slows .
  • Cystic fibrosis – It is a life threatening disorder which damage the Respiratory and digestive system . In that it damage the cell that secrets the mucus by that thick and sticky mucus secret.
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis – It known as Primary biliary cholangitis today . It is an autoimmune disease of the liver . Slow progressive destruction of the bile duct of the liver causing bile and other toxins to build up in our liver and also cause cholestasis.
  • Crohn’s disease – A chronic inflammatory disease that affect the lining of the digestive system.
  • Short bowel syndrome or simply short gut – It is a malabsorption disorder due to non functional activity of Small intestine . Primary symptoms is Diarrhoea and dehydration.
  • Nerve and muscle damage that result in loss of feeling in the arm and legs .
  • Loss of body movement control.
  • Muscle weakness
  • Vision problem
  • Weakened immune system

Vitamin E work for the physiological process in sperm and due to lack of Vitamin person may face Infertility.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is also known as Calcifrol . It is a type of fat soluble vitamin.

Fat soluble Vitamin mean that they are absorbed in the lymph and are transport through the blood and also stored in the liver and fatty tissue .

Vitamin D is very useful for us. It’s absorb calcium and phosphorus for bone growth and growth and development and also to maintain our bone strength.

Benefit of Vitamin D

  • Its prevents from gestational diabetes and type 1 diabetes because it’s regulate the insulin label.
  • It’s also prevents us from flu .
  • Its useful for lungs as well as Cardiovascular system.
  • Also good for nervous system

Note : A reason behind an infant after drink the milk he/she lying in the Sunlight its because after taking the calcium sunlight makes the vitamin D and that vitamin D absorb the calcium from the milk and make bone strong.

Source of Vitamin D

  • Oily fish
  • Fortified food – such as fat spread and breakfast cereal.
  • Egg yolk
  • Sunlight

Deficiency of Vitamin D cause

  • Osteoporosis
  • Fracture
  • Poor growth and development
  • Its also cause the preterm birth .
  • It’s deficiency can cause preeclampsia.

Note : A dark skin person may have a problem for absorption of Ultraviolet rays due to Melonin .

Complications of Excess Sunlight

  • Cardiovascular compliance
  • Skin cancer
  • Breast and prostate cancer
  • Sunburn
  • Heat Stroke

Vitamin C ( Ascorbic acid )

Vitamin C is a very useful vitamin for our body . It’s help us in Various form.

Source of Vitamin –

  • Kiwi fruit.
  • Orange
  • Amla/Awala is highly rich source.
  • Mango.
  • Papaya.
  • Pineapple.
  • Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and cranberries.

Benefit of Vitamin C

Helping to protect cell and maintain good health.

Maintain skin , blood vessels , bone and cartilage and teeth

Help in early wound healing.

formation of collagen,

absorption of iron,

the proper functioning of the immune system,

Scurvy is a disease condition which is caused by deficiency of Vitamin C.

Vitamin B9 and Vitamin B12

Vitamin B 9

It’s also known as Folate or Folic acid . It’s main function is that – convert food Carbohydrates into energy .

Foods Source

  • Pea
  • Lentils
  • Spinach
  • Avocados
  • Mango
  • Sweet Corn
  • Orange
  • Other green leafy vegetable
  • Fresh Fruit
  • Fruit juice
  • Sunflower seeds

Vitamin B 12 ( Cobalamin )

It’s a water soluble Vitamin which is a part of Vitamin B 12.

Food Source –

  • Animal product – Fish , Egg , Meat
  • Milk and milk products.


  • It’s helpful in metabolism of every cell .
  • It’s also act as a cofactors in DNA synthesis mean it’s helpful in production of D.N.A .
  • It’s also helpful for production of Red blood cell.
  • It’s also helpful for metabolism of fatty acid .
  • It’s also helpful in metabolism of amino acid .

Some facts for Adolescents that necessary for their day to day life.

Actually 17 year old boy /Girls or any teenagers so It’s mainly busy on studies and during their busy schedule he don’t take a adequate diet according to their body requirements. Actually a person take daily  food and he / she think that it’s sufficient but it’s not .

So mostly prefer a Calcium and Vitamin D rich diet for him .

Pulses , Egg ,Meat contain protein that’s also beneficial for him .

Butter , Cheese , all other dairy products are contain sufficient fats that’s good for him .

Fruits and Nuts always given him they also beneficial for him during their study and weight gain.

Banana and milk both are taken together are really work up for all person of any age’s. Cut the banana in pieces into milk and boiled them together and after boiled take it . It’s really work up because It’s contain high Carbohydrates that’s increase weight.

And a one most important thing that we daily ignore and think it’s a time waste – Exercise and Jogging . It’s should be included in daily schedule because when we do study it’s our Mental work but if we prefer Exercise and Jogging it’s our physical work and that increase our appetite and digestion and it’s should be good for us .

Whenever your possessed good digestion then you take a healthy food time to time and it’s alao too good for their weight gain.

Only 15 to 30 min exercise is work for you . You don’t need to do 2 or 3 hour exercise. 15 to 30 min is sufficient and by their exercise their mood and body is also fresh .

If by proper diet and exercise he /she doesn’t gain proper weight then you should concern nearest doctor and they gave you advice and some tablets and powder for milk which really work . But take by concern doctor because they help you according to their physique.

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